# Feasibility of underwater free space quantum key distribution

@inproceedings{Shi2014FeasibilityOU, title={Feasibility of underwater free space quantum key distribution}, author={Pengqin Shi and Shi-Cheng Zhao and Wen-Dong Li and Yongjian Gu}, year={2014} }

We investigate the optical absorption and scattering prope rties of underwater media pertinent to our underwater quantum key distribution (QKD) channel model. With the vector radiative transfer the ory and Monte Carlo method, we calculate the bit rate, the fidelity, and the quantum bit error rate of photons when transmitting underwater. It can be obse rved from our simulations that maximally secure single photon underwate r BB84 QKD is feasible with a distance of about 125 m in the clearest… Expand

#### Paper Mentions

#### 16 Citations

Experimental underwater quantum key distribution.

- Medicine
- Optics express
- 2021

An experimental investigation of quantum key distribution (QKD) and decoy-state QKD based on the BB84 protocol in a 10 m water tank and the probability-of-detection matrix of polarization states is measured. Expand

Quantum cryptography with twisted photons through an outdoor underwater channel

- 2018

Quantum communication has been successfully implemented in optical fibres and through free-space. Fibre systems, though capable of fast key and low error rates, are impractical in communicating with… Expand

Performance analysis of quantum key distribution in underwater turbulence channels

- Computer Science
- 2020

This paper analyzes the quantum bit error rate (QBER) and secret key rate (SKR) performance of the well-known BB84 protocol in underwater channels and considers a modified version of the Beer–Lambert formula, which takes into account the effect of scattering. Expand

Underwater Quantum Key Distribution in Outdoor Conditions with Twisted Photons

- Physics, Mathematics
- 2018

Quantum communication has been successfully implemented in optical fibres and through free-space [1-3]. Fibre systems, though capable of fast key rates and low quantum bit error rates (QBERs), are… Expand

Multi-hop quantum key distribution with passive relays over underwater turbulence channels

- Computer Science
- 2020

This paper investigates a multi-hop underwater quantum key distribution (QKD) where intermediate nodes between the source and destination nodes help the key distribution and presents the performance of a relay-assisted QKD scheme in terms of quantum bit error rate and secret key rate in different water types and turbulence conditions. Expand

Experimental investigation of quantum key distribution over a water channel.

- Physics, Mathematics
- Applied optics
- 2019

A proof-of-principle experiment for the BB84 protocol QKD over a water channel, demonstrating again the polarization preservation properties of the water channel in optical transmission according to the measured Mueller matrix, which is close to the unit matrix. Expand

Towards quantum communications in free-space seawater.

- Physics, Medicine
- Optics express
- 2017

It is experimentally demonstrated that polarization quantum states including general qubits of single photon and entangled states can survive well after travelling through seawater, representing the first step towards underwater quantum communication. Expand

Improving the discretely modulated underwater continuous-variable quantum key distribution with heralded hybrid linear amplifier

- Physics, Computer Science
- 2021

An improved four-state underwater CV-QKD protocol with a heralded hybrid linear amplifier (HLA) is proposed, and simulation results show that the introduction of the heralded HLA can effectively extend the secure transmission distance of the key. Expand

Proof-of-principle demonstration of quantum key distribution with seawater channel: towards space-to-underwater quantum communication

- Physics
- 2019

Abstract Quantum communication via seawater channels has attracted much attention. Here, we present the design and implementation of a prototype for space-to-underwater quantum key distribution… Expand

Feasibility study of Quantum Communications in Aquatic Scenarios

- Computer Science
- 2020

A feasibility analysis of various quantum key distribution protocols simulated in the water medium by performing an evaluation of their secret key rate, external noise sources and wind effect on the surface of the water suggests that underwater quantum communication can be implemented by adopting several protocols in all three scenarios. Expand

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